Subject: directions to migrate your WebFaction site to HTTPS
From: nick@npdoty.name
Date: To: friends who host personal sites on WebFaction Cc: Eric, whose helpful guide I used in the past Bcc: http://bcc.npdoty.name/

Hiya friends using WebFaction,

Securing the Web, even our little websites, is important — to set a good example, to maintain the confidentiality and integrity of our visitors, to get the best Google search ranking. While secure Web connections had been difficult and/or costly in the past, more recently, migrating a site to HTTPS has become fairly straightforward and costs $0 a year. It may get even easier in the future, but for now, the following steps should do the trick.

Hope this helps, and please let me know if you have any issues,
Nick

P.S. Yes, other friends, I recommend WebFaction as a host; I’ve been very happy with them. Services are reasonably priced and easy to use and I can SSH into a server and install stuff. Sign up via this affiliate link and maybe I get a discount on my service or something.

P.S. And really, let me know if and when you have issues. Encrypting access to your website has gotten easier, but it needs to become much easier still, and one part of that is knowing which parts of the process prove to be the most cumbersome. I’ll make sure your feedback gets to the appropriate people who can, for realsies, make changes as necessary to standards and implementations.

Updated 2 December 2016: to use new letsencrypt-webfaction design, which uses WebFaction's API and doesn't require emails and waiting for manual certificate installation.

Updated 16 July 2016: to fix the cron job command, which may not have always worked depending on environment variables


One day soon I hope WebFaction will make more of these steps unnecessary, but the configuring and testing will be something you have to do manually in pretty much any case. You should be able to complete all of this in an hour some evening.

Create a secure version of your website in the WebFaction Control Panel

Login to the Web Faction Control Panel, choose the “DOMAINS/WEBSITES” tab and then click “Websites”.

“Add new website”, one that will correspond to one of your existing websites. I suggest choosing a name like existingname-secure. Choose “Encrypted website (https)”. For Domains, testing will be easiest if you choose both your custom domain and a subdomain of yourusername.webfactional.com. (If you don’t have one of those subdomains set up, switch to the Domains tab and add it real quick.) So, for my site, I chose npdoty.name and npdoty.npd.webfactional.com.

Finally, for “Contents”, click “Re-use an existing application” and select whatever application (or multiple applications) you’re currently using for your http:// site.

Click “Save” and this step is done. This shouldn’t affect your existing site one whit.

Test to make sure your site works over HTTPS

Now you can test how your site works over HTTPS, even before you’ve created any certificates, by going to https://subdomain.yourusername.webfactional.com in your browser. Hopefully everything will load smoothly, but it’s reasonably likely that you’ll have some mixed content issues. The debug console of your browser should show them to you: that’s Apple-Option-K in Firefox or Apple-Option-J in Chrome. You may see some warnings like this, telling you that an image, a stylesheet or a script is being requested over HTTP instead of HTTPS:

Mixed Content: The page at ‘https://npdoty.name/’ was loaded over HTTPS, but requested an insecure image ‘http://example.com/blah.jpg’. This content should also be served over HTTPS.

Change these URLs so that they point to https://example.com/blah.jpg (you could also use a scheme-relative URL, like //example.com/blah.jpg) and update the files on the webserver and re-test.

Good job! Now, https://subdomain.yourusername.webfactional.com should work just fine, but https://yourcustomdomain.com shows a really scary message. You need a proper certificate.

Get a free certificate for your domain

Let’s Encrypt is a new, free, automated certificate authority from a bunch of wonderful people. But to get it to setup certificates on WebFaction is a little tricky, so we’ll use the letsencrypt-webfaction utility —- thanks will-in-wi!

SSH into the server with ssh yourusername@yourusername.webfactional.com.

To install, run this command:

GEM_HOME=$HOME/.letsencrypt_webfaction/gems RUBYLIB=$GEM_HOME/lib gem2.2 install letsencrypt_webfaction

(Run the same command to upgrade; necesary if you followed these instructions before Fall 2016.)

For convenience, you can add this as a function to make it easier to call. Edit ~/.bash_profile to include:

function letsencrypt_webfaction {
    PATH=$PATH:$GEM_HOME/bin GEM_HOME=$HOME/.letsencrypt_webfaction/gems RUBYLIB=$GEM_HOME/lib ruby2.2 $HOME/.letsencrypt_webfaction/gems/bin/letsencrypt_webfaction $*
}

Now, let’s test the certificate creation process. You’ll need your email address, the domain you're getting a certificate for, the path to the files for the root of your website on the server, e.g. /home/yourusername/webapps/sitename/ and the WebFaction username and password you use to log in. Filling those in as appropriate, run this command:

letsencrypt_webfaction --letsencrypt_account_email you@example.com --domains yourcustomdomain.com --public /home/yourusername/webapps/sitename/ --username webfaction_username --password webfaction_password

If all went well, you’ll see nothing on the command line. To confirm that the certificate was created successfully, check the SSL certificates tab on the WebFaction Control Panel. ("Aren't these more properly called TLS certificates?" Yes. So it goes.) You should see a certificate listed that is valid for your domain yourcustomdomain.com; click on it and you can see the expiry date and a bunch of gobblydegook which actually is the contents of the certificate.

To actually apply that certificate, head back to the Websites tab, select the -secure version of your website from the list and in the Security section, choose the certificate you just created from the dropdown menu.

Test your website over HTTPS

This time you get to test it for real. Load https://yourcustomdomain.com in your browser. (You may need to force refresh to get the new certificate.) Hopefully it loads smoothly and without any mixed content warnings. Congrats, your site is available over HTTPS!

You are not done. You might think you are done, but if you think so, you are wrong.

Set up automatic renewal of your certificates

Certificates from Let’s Encrypt expire in no more than 90 days. (Why? There are two good reasons.) Your certificates aren’t truly set up until you’ve set them up to renew automatically. You do not want to do this manually every few months; you will forget, I promise.

Cron lets us run code on WebFaction’s server automatically on a regular schedule. If you haven’t set up a cron job before, it’s just a fancy way of editing a special text file. Run this command:

EDITOR=nano crontab -e

If you haven’t done this before, this file will be empty, and you’ll want to test it to see how it works. Paste the following line of code exactly, and then hit Ctrl-O and Ctrl-X to save and exit.

* * * * * echo "cron is running" >> $HOME/logs/user/cron.log 2>&1

This will output to that log every single minute; not a good cron job to have in general, but a handy test. Wait a few minutes and check ~/logs/user/cron.log to make sure it’s working.

Rather than including our username and password in our cron job, we'll set up a configuration file with those details. Create a file config.yml, perhaps at the location ~/le_certs. (If necessary, mkdir le_certs, touch le_certs/config.yml, nano le_certs/config.yml.) In this file, paste the following, and then customize with your details:

letsencrypt_account_email: 'you@example.com'
api_url: 'https://api.webfaction.com/'
username: 'webfaction_username'
password: 'webfaction_password'

(Ctrl-O and Ctrl-X to save and close it.) Now, let’s edit the crontab to remove the test line and add the renewal line, being sure to fill in your domain name, the path to your website’s directory, and the path to the configuration file you just created:

0 4 15 */2 * PATH=$PATH:$GEM_HOME/bin GEM_HOME=$HOME/.letsencrypt_webfaction/gems RUBYLIB=$GEM_HOME/lib /usr/local/bin/ruby2.2 $HOME/.letsencrypt_webfaction/gems/bin/letsencrypt_webfaction --domains example.com --public /home/yourusername/webapps/sitename/ --config /home/yourusername/le_certs/config.yml >> $HOME/logs/user/cron.log 2>&1

You’ll probably want to create the line in a text editor on your computer and then copy and paste it to make sure you get all the substitutions right. Paths must be fully specified as the above; don't use ~ for your home directory. Ctrl-O and Ctrl-X to save and close it. Check with crontab -l that it looks correct. As a test to make sure the config file setup is correct, you can run the command part directly; if it works, you shouldn't see any error messages on the command line. (Copy and paste the line below, making the the same substitutions as you just did for the crontab.)

PATH=$PATH:$GEM_HOME/bin GEM_HOME=$HOME/.letsencrypt_webfaction/gems RUBYLIB=$GEM_HOME/lib /usr/local/bin/ruby2.2 $HOME/.letsencrypt_webfaction/gems/bin/letsencrypt_webfaction --domains example.com --public /home/yourusername/webapps/sitename/ --config /home/yourusername/le_certs/config.yml

With that cron job configured, you'll automatically get a new certificate at 4am on the 15th of alternating months (January, March, May, July, September, November). New certificates every two months is fine, though one day in the future we might change this to get a new certificate every few days; before then WebFaction will have taken over the renewal process anyway. Debugging cron jobs can be tricky (I've had to update the command in this post once already); I recommend adding an alert to your calendar for the day after the first time this renewal is supposed to happen, to remind yourself to confirm that it worked. If it didn't work, any error messages should be stored in the cron.log file.

Redirect your HTTP site (optional, but recommended)

Now you’re serving your website in parallel via http:// and https://. You can keep doing that for a while, but everyone who follows old links to the HTTP site won’t get the added security, so it’s best to start permanently re-directing the HTTP version to HTTPS.

WebFaction has very good documentation on how to do this, and I won’t duplicate it all here. In short, you’ll create a new static application named “redirect”, which just has a .htaccess file with, for example, the following:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.*)$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
RewriteCond %{HTTP:X-Forwarded-SSL} !on
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R=301,L]

This particular variation will both redirect any URLs that have www to the “naked” domain and make all requests HTTPS. And in the Control Panel, make the redirect application the only one on the HTTP version of your site. You can re-use the “redirect” application for different domains.

Test to make sure it’s working! http://yourcustomdomain.com, http://www.yourcustomdomain.com, https://www.yourcustomdomain.com and https://yourcustomdomain.com should all end up at https://yourcustomdomain.com. (You may need to force refresh a couple of times.)